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OG The argument for 'monetizing'

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OG The argument for 'monetizing'

Post Sat Aug 19, 2017 1:56 pm
The argument for “monetizing”-or putting a
monetary value on-ecosystem functions may be
stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural
resources is widespread, but this concern, in the
absence of an economic argument for conservation,
has not translated into significant conservational
progress. Some critics blame this impasse on
environmentalists, whom they believe fail to address
the economic issues of environmental degradation.
Conservation can appear unprofitable when compared
with the economic returns derived from converting
natural assets (pristine coastlines, for example) into
explicitly commercial ones (such as resort hotels).
But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems
from the fact that “services” provided by ecological
systems are not traded on the commodities market,
and thus have no readily quantifiable value. To
remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all
ecosystems have economic value-indeed, that all
ecological services are economic services. Tourists
visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create
jobs and generate income for national economies;
undisturbed forests and wetlands regulate water
runoff and act as water-purifying systems, saving
millions of dollars worth of damage to property
and to marine ecosystems. In Gretchen Daily’s
view, monetization, while unpopular with many
environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that
economic considerations play in human behavior,
and the expression of economic value in a common
currency helps inform environmental decision-making
processes.

415) Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of the following statements concerning monetization?
A. Monetization represents a strategy that is attractive to both environmentalists and their critics.
B. Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists.
C. Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation.
D. Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation.
E. Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups.

416) Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?
A. A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty
B. A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals
C. A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers
D. A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems
E. A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

417) According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?
A. The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions
B. The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation
C. The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground
D. The inevitability of environmental degradation
E. The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future

418) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the environmentalists mentioned in line 8?
A. They are organized in opposition to the generation of income produced by the sale of ecological services.
B. They are fewer in number but better organized and better connected to the media than their opponents.
C. They have sometimes been charged with failing to use a particular strategy in their pursuit of conservational goals.
D. They have been in the forefront of publicizing the extent of worldwide environmental degradation.
E. They define environmental progress differently and more conservatively than do other organized groups of environmentalists.

Q415: D
Q416: C
Q417: A
Q418: C

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