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OG The argument for 'monetizing'

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AbeNeedsAnswers Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
02 Jul 2017
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OG The argument for 'monetizing'

Post Sat Aug 19, 2017 1:56 pm
Elapsed Time: 00:00
    The argument for “monetizing”-or putting a
    monetary value on-ecosystem functions may be
    stated thus: Concern about the depletion of natural
    resources is widespread, but this concern, in the
    absence of an economic argument for conservation,
    has not translated into significant conservational
    progress. Some critics blame this impasse on
    environmentalists, whom they believe fail to address
    the economic issues of environmental degradation.
    Conservation can appear unprofitable when compared
    with the economic returns derived from converting
    natural assets (pristine coastlines, for example) into
    explicitly commercial ones (such as resort hotels).
    But according to David Pearce, that illusion stems
    from the fact that “services” provided by ecological
    systems are not traded on the commodities market,
    and thus have no readily quantifiable value. To
    remedy this, says Pearce, one has to show that all
    ecosystems have economic value-indeed, that all
    ecological services are economic services. Tourists
    visiting wildlife preserves, for example, create
    jobs and generate income for national economies;
    undisturbed forests and wetlands regulate water
    runoff and act as water-purifying systems, saving
    millions of dollars worth of damage to property
    and to marine ecosystems. In Gretchen Daily’s
    view, monetization, while unpopular with many
    environmentalists, reflects the dominant role that
    economic considerations play in human behavior,
    and the expression of economic value in a common
    currency helps inform environmental decision-making

    415) Information in the passage suggests that David Pearce would most readily endorse which of the following statements concerning monetization?
    A. Monetization represents a strategy that is attractive to both environmentalists and their critics.
    B. Monetization is an untested strategy, but it is increasingly being embraced by environmentalists.
    C. Monetization should at present be restricted to ecological services and should only gradually be extended to such commercial endeavors as tourism and recreation.
    D. Monetization can serve as a means of representing persuasively the value of environmental conservation.
    E. Monetization should inform environmental decision-making processes only if it is accepted by environmentalist groups.

    416) Which of the following most clearly represents an example of an “ecological service” as that term is used in line 20?
    A. A resort hotel located in an area noted for its natural beauty
    B. A water-purifying plant that supplements natural processes with nontoxic chemicals
    C. A wildlife preserve that draws many international travelers
    D. A nonprofit firm that specializes in restoring previously damaged ecosystems
    E. A newsletter that keeps readers informed of ecological victories and setbacks

    417) According to the passage, Daily sees monetization as an indication of which of the following?
    A. The centrality of economic interests to people’s actions
    B. The reluctance of the critics of environmentalism to acknowledge the importance of conservation
    C. The inability of financial interests and ecological interests to reach a common ideological ground
    D. The inevitability of environmental degradation
    E. The inevitability of the growth of ecological services in the future

    418) Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning the environmentalists mentioned in line 8?
    A. They are organized in opposition to the generation of income produced by the sale of ecological services.
    B. They are fewer in number but better organized and better connected to the media than their opponents.
    C. They have sometimes been charged with failing to use a particular strategy in their pursuit of conservational goals.
    D. They have been in the forefront of publicizing the extent of worldwide environmental degradation.
    E. They define environmental progress differently and more conservatively than do other organized groups of environmentalists.

    Q415: D
    Q416: C
    Q417: A
    Q418: C

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