• Veritas Prep
    Free Veritas GMAT Class
    Experience Lesson 1 Live Free

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Veritas Prep
  • e-gmat Exclusive Offer
    Get 300+ Practice Questions
    25 Video lessons and 6 Webinars for FREE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    e-gmat Exclusive Offer
  • PrepScholar GMAT
    5 Day FREE Trial
    Study Smarter, Not Harder

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    PrepScholar GMAT
  • Magoosh
    Magoosh
    Study with Magoosh GMAT prep

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Magoosh
  • EMPOWERgmat Slider
    1 Hour Free
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    EMPOWERgmat Slider
  • Economist Test Prep
    Free Trial & Practice Exam
    BEAT THE GMAT EXCLUSIVE

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Economist Test Prep
  • Varsity Tutors
    Award-winning private GMAT tutoring
    Register now and save up to $200

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Varsity Tutors
  • Target Test Prep
    5-Day Free Trial
    5-day free, full-access trial TTP Quant

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Target Test Prep
  • Kaplan Test Prep
    Free Practice Test & Review
    How would you score if you took the GMAT

    Available with Beat the GMAT members only code

    MORE DETAILS
    Kaplan Test Prep

OG'17

This topic has 6 expert replies and 5 member replies
fiza gupta Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
Joined
31 Jul 2016
Posted:
216 messages
Followed by:
6 members
Thanked:
31 times
Target GMAT Score:
750+

OG'17

Post Tue Nov 15, 2016 6:01 am
Elapsed Time: 00:00
  • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
    In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

    A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well
    B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
    C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
    D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
    E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result

    OA:A

    _________________
    Fiza Gupta

    Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums!
    Post Tue Nov 15, 2016 4:13 pm
    This question is primarily testing SENTENCE STRUCTURE (clauses) and LOGICAL MEANING.

    In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

    A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

    Correct!
    - we have an independent clause on either side of the semicolon. (Remember that whenever we see a SEMICOLON, we must have a full independent clause on either side).
    - all modifiers logically modify the intended thing

    B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
    - "so that" implies intentionality. Are the trees doing this on purpose? Can trees be said to do anything on purpose?
    - idiomatically, we cannot say "from where." "Where" cannot be an object of a preposition. We can only say "from which" (for anything non-human) or "from whom" (human).

    C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
    - the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."

    D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
    - If we start the sentence with a prepositional phrase ("In some types..."), we should follow it with the independent clause, not a dependent clause ("since...")
    - "consequently" is redundant if we've already said "since", and "therefore" is doubly redundant

    E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result
    - same as in D - we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase.
    - we can't use "where" to modify "buds." "where" should only refer to a physical / geographical location.

    The answer is A.

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!



    Last edited by ceilidh.erickson on Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:10 pm; edited 1 time in total

    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
    GMATsid2016 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Default Avatar
    Joined
    13 Nov 2016
    Posted:
    39 messages
    Thanked:
    1 times
    Post Wed Nov 16, 2016 9:30 am
    Quote:
    C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
    - the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."
    Hello Ceilidh ,

    Can you please explain more above reason to eliminate this option?

    Also please advise what does THEY refer to in OA?

    Thanks,

    Sid

    Post Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:11 pm
    GMATsid2016 wrote:
    Hello Ceilidh ,

    Can you please explain more above reason to eliminate this option?

    Also please advise what does THEY refer to in OA?

    Thanks,

    Sid
    Option C is wrong because it violates SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT. The subject is the singular "layer" (not "needles," which is part of a modifying prepositional phrase), so the verb should be "protects," not "protect."

    I agree that determining the antecedent of the pronoun "THEY" is tricky in this problem. Pronouns are most likely to replace subjects or objects of verbs, and are less likely to replace nouns in modifying phrases or clauses. Thus, we can assume that "they" probably refers to "buds." There is a little bit of ambiguity in whether "they" might be referring to "types of pine tree" rather than "buds," but the issue is minor; it would not cause a meaning difference in this problem. I've updated my post accordingly.

    The pronoun ambiguity issue is a tricky one on the GMAT: sometimes we're required to fix ambiguity issues (usually if there are also meaning issues), and sometimes a right answer will contain a seemingly ambiguous pronoun. The best thing to do is to ignore this issue unless you're sure you've dealt with all other grammar and meaning issues.

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

    Thanked by: GMATsid2016
    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
    Post Wed Nov 16, 2016 1:19 pm

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

    Thanked by: gmatdestroyer13
    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
    akara2500 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
    Joined
    12 Jun 2015
    Posted:
    4 messages
    Post Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:08 pm
    Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from

    akara2500 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
    Joined
    12 Jun 2015
    Posted:
    4 messages
    Post Fri Apr 14, 2017 8:08 pm
    Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from

    Post Mon Apr 24, 2017 7:53 am
    akara2500 wrote:
    Could you please more clarify, as far as I see, for this case "from which" is not the modifier for buds, since it has to be protect the bud from sth (protect sth from sth). So it's ok with protect the buds from where new growth proceeds. "where new growth proceeds" is just sth to protect the buds from
    The "from which" clause does modify "buds":
    - needles protect buds
    - new growth proceeds from buds


    So the sentence needs to convey:
    ... a thick layer of needles protects the buds (the things that new growth proceeds from)...
    We often end phrases in prepositions colloquially, but the GMAT will prefer the more proper PREPOSITION + RELATIVE PRONOUN.

    "Where" should only refer to a geographical place: a city, a country, a building, etc. Something with a fixed location. "Buds" are objects found on muliples trees in multiple locations, so it's better to use "which."

    For whatever reason, "from where" is never used in English. In old-fashioned usage, you might see "from whence." But in modern English, you would see "from which" even when referring to geographical places: New Orleans, a city from which numerous jazz artists emerged...

    I hope this answers your question!

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
    noiceman Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
    Joined
    07 Mar 2017
    Posted:
    11 messages
    Post Sun May 28, 2017 11:06 pm
    ceilidh.erickson wrote:
    This question is primarily testing SENTENCE STRUCTURE (clauses) and LOGICAL MEANING.

    In some types of pine tree, a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well.

    A) a thick layer of needles protects the buds from which new growth proceeds; consequently they are able to withstand forest fires relatively well

    Correct!
    - we have an independent clause on either side of the semicolon. (Remember that whenever we see a SEMICOLON, we must have a full independent clause on either side).
    - all modifiers logically modify the intended thing

    B) a thick needle layer protects buds from where new growth proceeds, so that they can withstand forest fires relatively well
    - "so that" implies intentionality. Are the trees doing this on purpose? Can trees be said to do anything on purpose?
    - idiomatically, we cannot say "from where." "Where" cannot be an object of a preposition. We can only say "from which" (for anything non-human) or "from whom" (human).

    C) a thick layer of needles protect the buds from which new growth proceeds; thus, they are able to withstand relatively well any forest fires
    - the correct verb is "a thick layer [of needles] protects..."

    D) since the buds from which new growth proceeds are protected by a thick layer needle layer, consequently they can therefore withstand forest fires relatively well
    - If we start the sentence with a prepositional phrase ("In some types..."), we should follow it with the independent clause, not a dependent clause ("since...")
    - "consequently" is redundant if we've already said "since", and "therefore" is doubly redundant

    E) because the buds where new growth happens are protected by a thick layer of needles, they are able to withstand forest fires relatively easily as a result
    - same as in D - we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase.
    - we can't use "where" to modify "buds." "where" should only refer to a physical / geographical location.

    The answer is A.
    Hi Ceilidh,
    Thank you for the explanation.
    Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
    It will help a lot.

    Post Mon May 29, 2017 7:38 am
    noiceman wrote:
    Hi Ceilidh,
    Thank you for the explanation.
    Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
    It will help a lot.
    Prepositional phrases act as modifiers (sometimes modifying nouns, sometimes modifying actions). As a general rule, a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence should modify what comes right after it:

    In the school play, I had the starring role.

    If additional modifying information is added with a dependent clause, it should not be "stacked" in front of the prepositional phrase:

    Incorrect: In the school play, because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role.

    Correct: In the school play, I had the starring role, because the other children had stage fright.
    or...
    Correct: Because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role in the school play,

    Does that answer your question?

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.
    noiceman Junior | Next Rank: 30 Posts Default Avatar
    Joined
    07 Mar 2017
    Posted:
    11 messages
    Post Mon May 29, 2017 7:45 am
    ceilidh.erickson wrote:
    noiceman wrote:
    Hi Ceilidh,
    Thank you for the explanation.
    Could you elaborate "we shouldn't begin a dependent clause ("because") after an opening prepositional phrase", please?
    It will help a lot.
    Prepositional phrases act as modifiers (sometimes modifying nouns, sometimes modifying actions). As a general rule, a prepositional phrase at the beginning of a sentence should modify what comes right after it:

    In the school play, I had the starring role.

    If additional modifying information is added with a dependent clause, it should not be "stacked" in front of the prepositional phrase:

    Incorrect: In the school play, because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role.

    Correct: In the school play, I had the starring role, because the other children had stage fright.
    or...
    Correct: Because the other children had stage fright, I had the starring role in the school play,

    Does that answer your question?
    Yes. Thank you for the kind help! Smile

    Post Mon May 29, 2017 7:58 am
    My pleasure!

    _________________


    Ceilidh Erickson
    Manhattan Prep GMAT & GRE instructor
    EdM in Mind, Brain, and Education
    Harvard Graduate School of Education


    Manhattan Prep instructors all have 99th+ percentile scores and expert teaching experience.
    Sign up for a FREE TRIAL, and learn why we have the highest ratings in the GMAT industry!

    Free Manhattan Prep online events - The first class of every online Manhattan Prep course is free. Classes start every week.

    Best Conversation Starters

    1 Vincen 152 topics
    2 lheiannie07 61 topics
    3 Roland2rule 49 topics
    4 LUANDATO 44 topics
    5 ardz24 40 topics
    See More Top Beat The GMAT Members...

    Most Active Experts

    1 image description Brent@GMATPrepNow

    GMAT Prep Now Teacher

    140 posts
    2 image description Rich.C@EMPOWERgma...

    EMPOWERgmat

    110 posts
    3 image description EconomistGMATTutor

    The Economist GMAT Tutor

    109 posts
    4 image description GMATGuruNY

    The Princeton Review Teacher

    107 posts
    5 image description DavidG@VeritasPrep

    Veritas Prep

    72 posts
    See More Top Beat The GMAT Experts