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A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering OA : C Can you comment on two things (1) Why is the usage of 'which' in (A) and (B) incorrect ? What is wrong if 'which' refers to 'the largest lake on earth' ? (2) I thought the usage of 'covering' is incorrect here . Because a Comma + verbING modifier should either describe (a)an immediate consequence of the previous clause or (b) it should describe a simultaneous lower priority action . But 'covering' doesn't seem to be doing either operation here. Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums! jtutej Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts Joined 19 Aug 2012 Posted: 1 messages Thanked: 1 times Sun Aug 19, 2012 1:56 am It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior. A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers ---- which refers to Earth B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers -- same as (A) C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering - CORRECT D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers-- awkward as "but it is actually" sounds better.. E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering -- awkward as being does not fit. However, looking forward for experts approach.. Thanked by: hjafferi hjafferi Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 19 Aug 2012 Posted: 83 messages Sun Aug 19, 2012 3:38 am Agree with jtutej. IMO C? Good explanation ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 13379 messages Followed by: 1781 members Thanked: 12902 times GMAT Score: 790 Sun Aug 19, 2012 5:21 am georgepaul0071987 wrote: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior. A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering In A and B, which seems to refer to Earth, but it is not the Earth but the CASPIAN that covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. Eliminate A and B. Though serves to indicate CONTRAST. In D, though called a sea and covers more than four times the surface area are not contrasting ideas. Eliminate D. In E, called seems to refer to lake, but the intention here is to say that the landlocked CASPIAN is called a sea. Eliminate E. The correct answer is C. Regarding the use of COMMA + which on the GMAT: If which has a SINGULAR verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding SINGULAR noun. If which has a PLURAL verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding PLURAL noun. To illustrate: Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the HEARINGS on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which WERE televised nationwide. Here, which has a plural verb (were), so it's clear that it refers not to impeachment but to HEARINGS (the nearest preceding plural noun). COMMA + VERBing serves to indicate an action happening at the same time as the preceding clause. In C, the Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, and at the same time -- and as a result of being the largest lake on Earth -- it is COVERING more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. _________________ Mitch Hunt GMAT Private Tutor GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "Thank" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Thanked by: 7777, amit.lohchab, Cartus, Resp007 Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. shekhar.kataria Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Joined 15 Mar 2010 Posted: 268 messages Thanked: 13 times Mon Aug 20, 2012 2:09 am Mitch Need Some clarification on the usage of which. 1. Why can't WHICH refer back to THE LARGEST LAKE ON THE EARTH ( the noun phrase )instead of the EARTH ( the noun ).?? 2. In Some X of Y, which construction we have seen that Of Y is a modifier which is placed to modify X and which in this case refers to noun phrase X of Y. I know the sentence wants to convey that it is the CASPIAN LAKE that covers more than.....the area , but in referring the noun phrase it should make sense because the largest lake is itself the CASPIAN LAKE. Help please, MAny Thanks in advance. _________________ Restlessness and discontent are the first necessities of progress.--Thomas A. Edison If you find this post helpful, let me know by clicking thanks above ### GMAT/MBA Expert GMATGuruNY GMAT Instructor Joined 25 May 2010 Posted: 13379 messages Followed by: 1781 members Thanked: 12902 times GMAT Score: 790 Sat Aug 25, 2012 7:26 am shekhar.kataria wrote: Mitch Need Some clarification on the usage of which. 1. Why can't WHICH refer back to THE LARGEST LAKE ON THE EARTH ( the noun phrase )instead of the EARTH ( the noun ).?? On the GMAT, COMMA + WHICH + SINGULAR VERB should refer to the NEAREST preceding singular noun. In A, the nearest preceding singular noun is Earth. A guiding principle: If the antecedent of a pronoun is not crystal clear, and another answer choice is free of errors and avoids the ambiguity, then the answer choice without the ambiguity is by default the better answer choice. Here, answer choice C is free of errors and avoids the ambiguity in answer choice A. Thus, we should eliminate A and choose C. Another issue here is meaning. In A, the COMMA + which modifier refers ONLY to the nearest eligible antecedent. But the intention here is to tell us more about SUBJECT of the preceding clause: the landlocked Caspian. Thus, a modifier that purposefully AVOIDS modifying the landlocked Caspian is not appropriate. The COMMA + VERBing modifier in C is far better because it modifies the ENTIRE PRECEDING CLAUSE, telling us more about how the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth. _________________ Mitch Hunt GMAT Private Tutor GMATGuruNY@gmail.com If you find one of my posts helpful, please take a moment to click on the "Thank" icon. Available for tutoring in NYC and long-distance. For more information, please email me at GMATGuruNY@gmail.com. Thanked by: jurafumo Free GMAT Practice Test How can you improve your test score if you don't know your baseline score? Take a free online practice exam. Get started on achieving your dream score today! Sign up now. divineacclivity Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 16 May 2012 Posted: 78 messages Thanked: 2 times Sun Sep 23, 2012 1:45 am GMATGuruNY wrote: georgepaul0071987 wrote: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior. A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering In A and B, which seems to refer to Earth, but it is not the Earth but the CASPIAN that covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. Eliminate A and B. Though serves to indicate CONTRAST. In D, though called a sea and covers more than four times the surface area are not contrasting ideas. Eliminate D. In E, called seems to refer to lake, but the intention here is to say that the landlocked CASPIAN is called a sea. Eliminate E. The correct answer is C. Regarding the use of COMMA + which on the GMAT: If which has a SINGULAR verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding SINGULAR noun. If which has a PLURAL verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding PLURAL noun. To illustrate: Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the HEARINGS on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which WERE televised nationwide. Here, which has a plural verb (were), so it's clear that it refers not to impeachment but to HEARINGS (the nearest preceding plural noun). COMMA + VERBing serves to indicate an action happening at the same time as the preceding clause. In C, the Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, and at the same time -- and as a result of being the largest lake on Earth -- it is COVERING more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. hey, thanks for your explanation. I don't quite understand the reason to eliminate option B. "X preposition Y, which .." - 'which' could refer to either of X or Y depending on which one of the two it logically and grammatically connects to. Please help me understand why else should we strike out option B? One more question around option C: "Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, covering ..." -> Could ", covering ..." be modifying the lake or Earth just as ", which .." does? OR, does ", covering .." only modify the subject? Thank you. Divine tanviet Legendary Member Joined 20 May 2008 Posted: 1404 messages Followed by: 2 members Thanked: 18 times Fri Dec 07, 2012 2:00 am GMATGuruNY wrote: georgepaul0071987 wrote: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior. A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering In A and B, which seems to refer to Earth, but it is not the Earth but the CASPIAN that covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. Eliminate A and B. Though serves to indicate CONTRAST. In D, though called a sea and covers more than four times the surface area are not contrasting ideas. Eliminate D. In E, called seems to refer to lake, but the intention here is to say that the landlocked CASPIAN is called a sea. Eliminate E. The correct answer is C. Regarding the use of COMMA + which on the GMAT: If which has a SINGULAR verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding SINGULAR noun. If which has a PLURAL verb, then it should refer to the nearest preceding PLURAL noun. To illustrate: Barbara Jordan did not become a nationally recognized figure until 1974, when she participated in the HEARINGS on the impeachment of President Richard Nixon, which WERE televised nationwide. Here, which has a plural verb (were), so it's clear that it refers not to impeachment but to HEARINGS (the nearest preceding plural noun). COMMA + VERBing serves to indicate an action happening at the same time as the preceding clause. In C, the Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, and at the same time -- and as a result of being the largest lake on Earth -- it is COVERING more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. I can not understand why A and B are wrong. "which relative clause" can modify the noun phrase immediately preceding. e gmat made artical on this. Manhantan SC 5 make an explanation on this. there are many questions in og in which "which relative clause" modify the noun phrase, not the preceding noun. it is quite correct to say thay "which covers" refers to " largest lake on earth" not "earth" you can find the e gmat article in the gmatclub forum " slightly far noun" http://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html pls help tanviet Legendary Member Joined 20 May 2008 Posted: 1404 messages Followed by: 2 members Thanked: 18 times Sat Jan 12, 2013 1:02 am if we have X of Y, which if Y is eligible, which modifies Y if Y is not eligible and Y modifies X, which can jump over Y to modify X (Ron Said above) if Y is not eligible and Y dose not modify X, this pattern is wrong on gmat. (Ron said above thing) in this problem , #48 og13 , if we say that "which covers..." modifies "earth", we have to admit that "earth" is eligible to be modified by "which covers" the matter will be what is eligibility? "earth" and "which covers" can match but the meaning is not logic. pls explain me of the eligibility here, thank you tanviet Legendary Member Joined 20 May 2008 Posted: 1404 messages Followed by: 2 members Thanked: 18 times Sat Jan 12, 2013 1:30 am I am confused. this is og question and should be studied carefully. Pls, read the og explantion of why A is wrong. according to og explanation, which refering to "the largest lake on Earth" is odd. Why? pls explain. A .The referent of which is unclear. Grammatically, its antecedent cannot be the landlocked Caspian, so it must be eitherEarth or the largest lake on Earth. The latter is a little odd, because the sentence has already said that the lake in question is the Caspian, so one wouldexpect and instead of which. For these reasons and because Earth immediatelyprecedes which, the sentence appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior. vietmoi999 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts Joined 08 Apr 2013 Posted: 96 messages Sat Aug 10, 2013 1:09 am GMATGuruNY wrote: shekhar.kataria wrote: Mitch Need Some clarification on the usage of which. 1. Why can't WHICH refer back to THE LARGEST LAKE ON THE EARTH ( the noun phrase )instead of the EARTH ( the noun ).?? On the GMAT, COMMA + WHICH + SINGULAR VERB should refer to the NEAREST preceding singular noun. In A, the nearest preceding singular noun is Earth. A guiding principle: If the antecedent of a pronoun is not crystal clear, and another answer choice is free of errors and avoids the ambiguity, then the answer choice without the ambiguity is by default the better answer choice. Here, answer choice C is free of errors and avoids the ambiguity in answer choice A. Thus, we should eliminate A and choose C. Another issue here is meaning. In A, the COMMA + which modifier refers ONLY to the nearest eligible antecedent. But the intention here is to tell us more about SUBJECT of the preceding clause: the landlocked Caspian. Thus, a modifier that purposefully AVOIDS modifying the landlocked Caspian is not appropriate. The COMMA + VERBing modifier in C is far better because it modifies the ENTIRE PRECEDING CLAUSE, telling us more about how the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth. thank you Mintch Hunt, I get what you mean. Let me summarize your thinking gmat prefer that the modifier touch the noun modified. However for many reasons, This is not alway possible and in many OA in other sc problems, we see that modifiers do not touch the noun modified. ( that is why in many OA in other sc problem in og and gmatprep, we see that noun+modifier 1+modifier 2= "the largest laket on earth, which..." is acceptable. Howerver, it is not prefered and we should choose better choice as we do in this sc problem) similarly, gmat prefers that the object touches the verb. Howerver, for many reasons,this is not alway possible and in many OA in other sc problems, we can see that the object dose not touch the verb. I call this point PREFERENCE , NOT ABSOLUTE RULE ON GMAT. I can give you 2 question from og to ilustrate the rule "object should follow verb" Ford modeled after an assembly-line techniques introduced by Ransom Olds, reduced from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T. (A) from a day and a half to 93 minutes the required time of assembling a Model T (B) the time being required to assemble a Model T, from a day and a half down to 93 minutes (0 the time being required to assemble a Model T, a day and a half to 93 minutes (D) the time required to assemble a Model T from a day and a half to 93 minutes (E) from a day and a half to 93 minutes, the time required for the assembling of a Model T OA IS D. By merging its two publishing divisions, the company will increase their share of the country's$21 billion book market from 6 percent to 10 percent, a market ranging from obscure textbooks to mass-market paperbacks.
A. their share of the country's $21 billion book market from 6 percent to 10 percent, a market ranging B. from 6 percent to 10 percent its share of the$21 billion book market in the country, which ranges
C. to 10 percent from 6 percent in their share of the $21 billion book market in the country, a market ranging D. in its share, from 6 percent to 10 percent, of the$21 billion book market in the country, which ranges
E. to 10 percent from 6 percent its share of the country's \$21 billion book market, which ranges

vietmoi999 Senior | Next Rank: 100 Posts
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Sat May 17, 2014 4:07 am
"which" in choice A and B is correct because it can modify a far noun.

A and B are wrong because they are the distorted meaning, not the intenden meaning.

read the similar question explained by Ron on manhantan forum

For the first time in the modern era, non-Hispanic Whites are officially a minority in
California, which amounts to a little less than half the population of the state, down from
nearly three-quarters only a decade ago.

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AnjaliOberoi Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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+1 for C (best choice)

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Thu May 22, 2014 6:43 am
On the GMAT:

COMMA + which + singular verb must refer to the NEAREST PRECEDING SINGULAR NOUN.
COMMA + which + plural verb must refer to the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
To my knowledge, there have been NO EXCEPTIONS among any OAs from GMAC.

Note the OG13's explanation for eliminating A:
Because Earth immediately precedes which, the sentence appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior.

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cuhmoon Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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Mon Jan 30, 2017 6:15 pm
Great explanation! Can you please explain the same w.r.t to this sentence:

The committee chose Mr. Smith of Left Block, who was the most experienced member, to lead all the management-related operations

Here, who refers to Mr. Smith and NOT Left Block.

Per the rule mentioned below: comma + relative pronoun + singular verb must refer to the nearest preceding singular noun. thus who should refer to block.. but that's not the intended meaning of this sentence?

[quote="GMATGuruNY"]On the GMAT:

COMMA + [i]which[/i] + singular verb must refer to the NEAREST PRECEDING SINGULAR NOUN.
COMMA + [i]which[/i] + plural verb must refer to the NEAREST PRECEDING PLURAL NOUN.
To my knowledge, there have been NO EXCEPTIONS among any OAs from GMAC.

Note the OG13's explanation for eliminating A:
Because [i]Earth[/i] immediately precedes [i]which[/i], the sentence appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior.[/quote]

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