Welcome! Check out our free B-School Guides to learn how you compare with other applicants.

GMAT 2.0

This topic has 4 expert replies and 6 member replies
fangtray Really wants to Beat The GMAT!
Joined
08 Sep 2011
Posted:
273 messages
Followed by:
3 members
Thanked:
4 times
GMAT 2.0 Fri May 04, 2012 3:26 pm
Elapsed Time: 00:00
• Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from others.
a.
b. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
c. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
e. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their.

Need free GMAT or MBA advice from an expert? Register for Beat The GMAT now and post your question in these forums!

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
396 messages
Followed by:
56 members
Thanked:
234 times
Fri May 04, 2012 3:44 pm
fangtray wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from others.
a.
b. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
c. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
e. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their.
Hi, there. I'm happy to help with this.

First of all, the pronoun "each" is always singular, so the answers that pair "each" (singular) with "their" (plural) are incorrect. That immediately eliminates (A), (B), and (E).

The problem with (C) is ---- the relative pronoun "which" is supposed to introduce a relative clause, with it's own noun + verb. Instead, in (C), "which" is followed by a participial phrase, "contributing . . ." That's grammatically incorrect. It's also unnecessarily wordy.

That leaves (D) ---- compact, direct, and free of errors ---- the correct answer.

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

Last edited by Mike@Magoosh on Mon May 07, 2012 11:52 am; edited 1 time in total

fangtray Really wants to Beat The GMAT!
Joined
08 Sep 2011
Posted:
273 messages
Followed by:
3 members
Thanked:
4 times
Fri May 04, 2012 4:13 pm
Mike@Magoosh wrote:
fangtray wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from others.
a.
b. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
c. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
e. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their.
Hi, there. I'm happy to help with this.

First of all, the pronoun "each" is always singular, so the answers that pair "each" (singular) with "their" (plural) are incorrect. That immediately eliminates (A), (B), and (E).

The problem with (C) is ---- the relative pronoun "which" is supposed to introduce a relative clause, with it's own noun + verb. Instead, in (C), "which" is followed by a participial phrase, "contributing . . ." That's grammatically incorrect. It's also unnecessarily wordy.

That leaves (D) ---- compact, direct, and free of errors ---- the correct answer.

Here's a free lesson on pronouns that you may find helpful.
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/613-pronouns-i

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike
thx mike! i chose between c and d as well. could you explain why which needs to be followed by its own noun + verb? and an example of what could be done to C, so that which is correctly used?

fangtray Really wants to Beat The GMAT!
Joined
08 Sep 2011
Posted:
273 messages
Followed by:
3 members
Thanked:
4 times
Fri May 04, 2012 4:27 pm
Mike@Magoosh wrote:
fangtray wrote:
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and of all the other planets, each contributing according to their mass and distance from others.
a.
b. of all the other planets, with each of them contributing according to their
c. all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its
e. all the other planets, each of which contribute according to their.
Hi, there. I'm happy to help with this.

First of all, the pronoun "each" is always singular, so the answers that pair "each" (singular) with "their" (plural) are incorrect. That immediately eliminates (A), (B), and (E).

The problem with (C) is ---- the relative pronoun "which" is supposed to introduce a relative clause, with it's own noun + verb. Instead, in (C), "which" is followed by a participial phrase, "contributing . . ." That's grammatically incorrect. It's also unnecessarily wordy.

That leaves (D) ---- compact, direct, and free of errors ---- the correct answer.

Here's a free lesson on pronouns that you may find helpful.
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/613-pronouns-i

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike
thx mike! i chose between c and d as well. could you explain why which needs to be followed by its own noun + verb? and an example of what could be done to C, so that which is correctly used?

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
396 messages
Followed by:
56 members
Thanked:
234 times
Sun May 06, 2012 10:42 am
fangtray wrote:
thx mike! i chose between c and d as well. could you explain why which needs to be followed by its own noun + verb? and an example of what could be done to C, so that which is correctly used?
Dear fantray,

Why does "which" need to be followed by a noun + verb? Well, how well do you understand independent and dependent clauses? Unlike a participial phrase ("contributing according to its ..."), any clause, whether independent or dependent, need to have a noun & verb. Dependent clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions (e.g. after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, and while) or a relative pronoun (e.g. who, what, which, where, when, why). These are huge topics in grammar --- I don't think there's any way I could say everything there is to say about them in a single post. Here's a free lesson on SC

http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/600-general-sc-strategies

but I would recommend some source that would give you a thorough overview of the grammar on the GMAT. Magoosh has an excellent series of videos covering all this grammar. See the link in my signature.

As far as what would make C acceptable . . . here is the current version of (C)

(C) In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its mass and distance from others.

Here's the corrected version --- change the participle to a verb -----

(C) In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its mass and distance from others..

The relative pronoun "which" acts as the noun and "contributes" is a bonafide verb.

Does that make sense?

Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

GmatKiss GMAT Titan
Joined
26 Jul 2011
Posted:
2790 messages
Followed by:
41 members
Thanked:
205 times
Target GMAT Score:
700+
GMAT Score:
640
Sun May 06, 2012 11:45 am
IMO: D

fangtray Really wants to Beat The GMAT!
Joined
08 Sep 2011
Posted:
273 messages
Followed by:
3 members
Thanked:
4 times
Sun May 06, 2012 10:09 pm
Mike@Magoosh wrote:
fangtray wrote:
thx mike! i chose between c and d as well. could you explain why which needs to be followed by its own noun + verb? and an example of what could be done to C, so that which is correctly used?
Dear fantray,

Why does "which" need to be followed by a noun + verb? Well, how well do you understand independent and dependent clauses? Unlike a participial phrase ("contributing according to its ..."), any clause, whether independent or dependent, need to have a noun & verb. Dependent clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctions (e.g. after, although, as, as far as, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though, because, before, if, in order that, since, so, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, whereas, wherever, and while) or a relative pronoun (e.g. who, what, which, where, when, why). These are huge topics in grammar --- I don't think there's any way I could say everything there is to say about them in a single post. Here's a free lesson on SC

http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/600-general-sc-strategies

but I would recommend some source that would give you a thorough overview of the grammar on the GMAT. Magoosh has an excellent series of videos covering all this grammar. See the link in my signature.

As far as what would make C acceptable . . . here is the current version of (C)

(C) In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, each of which contributing according to its mass and distance from others.

Here's the corrected version --- change the participle to a verb -----

(C) In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, each of which contributes according to its mass and distance from others..

The relative pronoun "which" acts as the noun and "contributes" is a bonafide verb.

Does that make sense?

Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike
omg thanks so much for that explanation. since which is part of a dependent clause, it is the noun. and it needs a verb. So each of WHICH contributes..

or we can even say, Each of WHICH IS contributing right? Is will be the verb in this case?

gmatdriller GMAT Destroyer!
Joined
04 Jul 2010
Posted:
340 messages
Followed by:
1 members
Thanked:
3 times
Sun May 06, 2012 10:34 pm
Hi Mike@magoosh,

Please what do you think would determine the best answer if C and D
were:

c. all the other planets, all contributing according to their
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

i.e "all....their" Vs "each...its"

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
396 messages
Followed by:
56 members
Thanked:
234 times
Mon May 07, 2012 11:23 am
fangtray wrote:
omg thanks so much for that explanation. since which is part of a dependent clause, it is the noun. and it needs a verb. So each of WHICH contributes..
or we can even say, Each of WHICH IS contributing right? Is will be the verb in this case?
The construction ...
each of which contributes according to its mass and distance from others.
... uses the regular present tense, which is perfectly correct.

The construction ...
each of which is contributing according to its mass and distance from others.
... use the present progressive. The present progressive emphasizes that the action is question is taking place simultaneously with our description of it. "She talks to her friend on the phone" --- general present tense indicates merely that this is a regular occurrence, a typical recurring situation. "She is talking to her friend on the phone" --- the present progressive indicates that right now, right at this moment, she is performing this action, simultaneous with our description of it.
In this context, the planets are out their doing their gravitational thing, but there's absolutely no reason to emphasize that their action is exactly simultaneous with our description of it. That's why the present progressive would be incorrect. Yes, in the very narrow sense of providing a noun for the clause following "which" --- in that limited sense, it is correct, but overall, it does not fit the logic of the sentence.

Does that make sense?

Mike

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

GMAT/MBA Expert

Mike@Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined
28 Dec 2011
Posted:
396 messages
Followed by:
56 members
Thanked:
234 times
Mon May 07, 2012 11:50 am
gmatdriller wrote:
Hi Mike@magoosh,

Please what do you think would determine the best answer if C and D
were:

c. all the other planets, all contributing according to their
d. all the other planets, each contributing according to its

i.e "all....their" Vs "each...its"
That's a great question, gmatdriller. I'm happy to answer.

Let's go back to the original sentence with correct answer (D)
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, each contributing according to its mass and distance from others.

You propose an alternate to (C):
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, all contributing according to their mass and distance from others.

Yes, now we have agreement between "all" and "their", so that's no longer a problem. One problem that remains is: "their" refers to all the planets, but "mass and distance" are singular. Not all th planets have the same mass. Each has a unique mass. Therefore, we would need those words in the plural.
In his experiments with gravity, Isaac Newton showed how the motion of each planet in the solar system results from the combined gravitational pull of the Sun and all the other planets, all contributing according to their masses and distances from others.

This version is technically grammatically correct, insofar as all the singulars & plurals match up correctly. The problem is more subtle, about the logic of the sentence. We want to emphasize the complexity of Newton's model --- the motion of any one planet depends on the Sun's gravity and on the gravity from each other planet. Say we are looking at Mars and its orbit --- the Sun's gravity has one impact, Earth's gravity on Mars has another impact, Jupiter's gravity on Mars has yet another impact, etc. etc. The orbit of Mars depends on all the different impacts. Each planet has a unique impact on each other planet: that is the nature of the complexity of the Newtonian model.
The construction "each contributing according to its" captures the particularity of the interactions, whereas "all contributing according to their" lumps everything together in way that might obscure the full complexity. Therefore, the "each" version is better than the "all" version. BTW, this final distinction is, in all likelihood, more subtle that the GMAT SC would address.

Does that make sense? Let me know if you have any further questions.

Mike

_________________
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
http://gmat.magoosh.com/

Thanked by: sam2304
fangtray Really wants to Beat The GMAT!
Joined
08 Sep 2011
Posted:
273 messages
Followed by:
3 members
Thanked:
4 times
Mon May 07, 2012 9:18 pm
thanks Mike,

i feel your explanations are incredibly clear and easy to understand.

Best Conversation Starters

1 varun289 31 topics
2 sana.noor 23 topics
3 killerdrummer 21 topics
4 Rudy414 19 topics
5 sanaa.rizwan 14 topics
See More Top Beat The GMAT Members...

Most Active Experts

1 Brent@GMATPrepNow

GMAT Prep Now Teacher

199 posts
2 GMATGuruNY

The Princeton Review Teacher

134 posts
3 Jim@StratusPrep

Stratus Prep

106 posts
4 Anju@Gurome

Gurome

47 posts