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Exam pack 1 SC Question | Intense Verb+Ing Discussion

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Exam pack 1 SC Question | Intense Verb+Ing Discussion

Post Tue Oct 18, 2016 11:18 pm
Introduced by Italian merchants resident in London during the sixteenth century, in England life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically being ship owners, overseas merchants, or professional moneylenders.

(A) in England life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically being

(B) in England life insurance had remained until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, who typically were

(C) until the end of the seventeenth century life insurance in England had remained a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

(D) life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

(E) life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century in England a specialized contract between individual underwriters with their clients, who typically were

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Last edited by richachampion on Tue Oct 18, 2016 11:40 pm; edited 1 time in total

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 8:53 pm
Quote:
Can you please clear the difference between D and E, because in both the option the usage of in England is different.
Quote:
(D) life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

(E) life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century in England a specialized contract between individual underwriters with their clients, who typically were
placement of in England in neither options is incorrect.
However, there is an issue of efficient writing in placement of in England in both the options.

(D) life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract

Both prepositional modifiers-in England and until the end of the seventeenth century- are modifying verb remained and thus are adverbials.


D
remained, where?
in England
remained, when?
until the end of the seventeenth century

E
remained, when?
until the end of the seventeenth century
remained, where?
in England

In this kind of a situation it is efficient( because of easy readibility ) to place the modifier that is smaller in length first and then place the modifier that is relatively bigger in length.

Note: neither placement is downright incorrect.

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 3:52 pm
Hi Experts ,

Can you please clear the difference between D and E, because in both the option the usage of in England is different.

Also please advise the usage of COMMA+WHO?

Thanks..

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 8:53 pm
Quote:
Can you please clear the difference between D and E, because in both the option the usage of in England is different.
Quote:
(D) life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

(E) life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century in England a specialized contract between individual underwriters with their clients, who typically were
placement of in England in neither options is incorrect.
However, there is an issue of efficient writing in placement of in England in both the options.

(D) life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract

Both prepositional modifiers-in England and until the end of the seventeenth century- are modifying verb remained and thus are adverbials.


D
remained, where?
in England
remained, when?
until the end of the seventeenth century

E
remained, when?
until the end of the seventeenth century
remained, where?
in England

In this kind of a situation it is efficient( because of easy readibility ) to place the modifier that is smaller in length first and then place the modifier that is relatively bigger in length.

Note: neither placement is downright incorrect.

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 3:52 pm
Hi Experts ,

Can you please clear the difference between D and E, because in both the option the usage of in England is different.

Also please advise the usage of COMMA+WHO?

Thanks..

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Post Sun Mar 12, 2017 4:26 am
It seems that the SC under discussion has two versions or it has not been transcribed properly.

The wordings of OA in SC that Richa Champion posted and those that Mitch Hunt has posted link of differ slightly.

The one by Richa Champion
D)life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

The one Mitch posted link of
D) life insurance in England remained until the end of the seventeen century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically

Richa Champion, my friend, can you please confirm whether you have transcribed it ad-verbatim?
Thank you.
Have a wonderful day.

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Post Sun Mar 12, 2017 3:14 am
rsarashi wrote:
Can you please clear the difference between D and E, because in both the option the usage of in England is different.
Check my first post here:
http://www.beatthegmat.com/introduced-by-italian-merchant-resident-in-london-t292037.html

Quote:
Also please advise the usage of COMMA+WHO?
Check my second post in the same thread (http://www.beatthegmat.com/introduced-by-italian-merchant-resident-in-london-t292037.html).

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 9:05 pm
E has incorrect idiom- between X with Y.
However, the correct idiom is between X and Y, as is the case in OA.

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Post Sat Mar 11, 2017 9:01 pm
Quote:
Also please advise the usage of COMMA+WHO?
comma who in E vs appositive modifier in D is not an issue.

Both are interchangeable here because we are already limiting the scope of that concept[client] by using another qualifier their, which has already restricted the scope of that concept[client].

As the scope has already been restricted, because of the usage of their, we need not use who without comma to restrict the scope of clients.

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Post Fri Oct 21, 2016 5:26 am
Bumping this thread for experts review.

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Post Wed Oct 19, 2016 10:11 pm
GMATGuruNY wrote:
An appositive is essentially a nonrestrictive relative clause with the relative pronoun and verb omitted.
OA: their clients, [who were] typically ship owners, overseas merchants, or professional moneylenders.
Here, the words in brackets are omitted, but their presence is implied.
typically is an adverb serving the modify the implied verb were.
This is a million dollar response. Normally I take notes of my new learning, and I will do the same for this also, but the way you have explained I think I will remember this through out my life. Thank you so much.

One more question:
(E) life insurance remained until the end of the seventeenth century in England a specialized contract between individual underwriters with their clients, who typically were


Is Comma+ who a right structure. I mean can who be preceded by a COMMA?

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Post Wed Oct 19, 2016 4:29 am
richachampion wrote:
GMATGuruNY wrote:
There is no COMMA + VERBing modifier in the OA.
The portion in blue is an APPOSITIVE serving to define the preceding noun (clients).
Conveyed meaning:
THEIR CLIENTS were TYPICALLY SHIP OWNERS, OVERSEAS MERCHANTS, OR PROFESSIONAL MONEYLENDERS.
typically generally looks like an adverbial. Does it posses the same exception as "INCLUDING"?

or perhaps =

What I think is that they have used Adverb + Adjective + Noun form here in correct answer.

Typically + ship + owners
Typically + overseas + merchants
Typically + professional + moneylenders

An adverb can modify an adjective, which can therefore modify a noun.

If this is the case, I am not sure though, then this is very subtle.
An appositive is essentially a nonrestrictive relative clause with the relative pronoun and verb omitted.
OA: their clients, [who were] typically ship owners, overseas merchants, or professional moneylenders.
Here, the words in brackets are omitted, but their presence is implied.
typically is an adverb serving the modify the implied verb were.

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Post Wed Oct 19, 2016 4:17 am
GMATGuruNY wrote:
There is no COMMA + VERBing modifier in the OA.
The portion in blue is an APPOSITIVE serving to define the preceding noun (clients).
Conveyed meaning:
THEIR CLIENTS were TYPICALLY SHIP OWNERS, OVERSEAS MERCHANTS, OR PROFESSIONAL MONEYLENDERS.
typically generally looks like an adverbial. Does it posses the same exception as "INCLUDING"?

or perhaps =

What I think is that they have used Adverb + Adjective + Noun form here in correct answer.

Typically + ship + owners
Typically + overseas + merchants
Typically + professional + moneylenders

An adverb can modify an adjective, which can therefore modify a noun.

If this is the case, I am not sure though, then this is very subtle.

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Post Wed Oct 19, 2016 3:12 am
richachampion wrote:
Reason for Posting this question -
I have a doubt in the correct answer,which is Option D

Here is my understanding about Verb+Ing modifier -

When you use a COMMA -ING modifier after a clause**, you should actually satisfy TWO requirements:

1. the modifier should modify the action of the preceding clause, as you have stated;
2. The subject of the preceding clause should also make sense as the agent of the -ING action.

This sort of modifier should additionally satisfy TWO requirements:

1) It should apply most nearly to the subject of the preceding clause (as you've said); and, even more importantly,
2) It should have one of the following RELATIONSHIPS to that clause:
* Immediate consequence
* Simultaneous, but lower-priority, action

VERB + Ing Modifiers also take the tense of the Preceding clause.


Here typically seems to be modifying clients and then only it can make sense, but how come? clients is not the main subject of the preceding clause, neither starting any clause, but it is an object in itself.

Experts, I have something to share with you from an another Official question. Click Here.

Ron Purewal has given this solution -

Ron Purewal =
nope, that rule still applies. i'll show you how.

Among lower-paid workers, union members are less likely than nonunion members to be enrolled in lower-end insurance plans [that impose stricter limits on medical services and require doctors [ to see more patients]], spending...


In this case, the COMMA -ING modifier could grammatically modify either the blue clause or the purple clause (which is nested within the blue one). from context, it should be clear that the modifier is meant to modify the purple clause.
(this is normally what happens in this type of situation with nested clauses: an attached COMMA -ING modifier will normally modify the embedded, smaller clause. there is no need to memorize the statistical rule for this, however -- in most cases, such as this one, the context will make quite clear what is being modified and what is not.)

the COMMA -ING modifier modifies the action of the purple clause, and also applies to the subject of the purple clause -- namely, the relative pronoun "that". this relative pronoun, in turn, refers to "lower-end insurance plans". so the rule still works.

I am unable to establish correlation; Does similar such situation exists here in our questions Option D.
OA: Introduced by Italian merchants resident in London during the sixteenth century, life insurance remained in England until the end of the seventeenth century a specialized contract between individual underwriters and their clients, typically ship owners, overseas merchants, or professional moneylenders.

There is no COMMA + VERBing modifier in the OA.
The portion in blue is an APPOSITIVE serving to define the preceding noun (clients).
Conveyed meaning:
THEIR CLIENTS were TYPICALLY SHIP OWNERS, OVERSEAS MERCHANTS, OR PROFESSIONAL MONEYLENDERS.

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