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Antibiotics

This topic has 6 member replies
arashyazdiha Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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Antibiotics

Post Fri Aug 26, 2011 11:43 pm
Elapsed Time: 00:00
  • Lap #[LAPCOUNT] ([LAPTIME])
    Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, because bacteria adapt quickly to new environmental conditions, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Critically ill patients are more likely to require the aid of antibiotics to fight infections, so are more likely to be harmed by the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    Bacteria contain genetic material called plasmids, which can carry the genes enabling antibiotic resistance. Bacteria share these plasmids among one another via a direct, mechanical transfer between cells, and antibiotic-resistant plasmids can thus spread easily throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural chromosomal mutation may confer antibiotic resistance on a bacterium, which can then reproduce and become dominant via natural selection, likely when that colony is exposed to antibiotics. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
    On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for non-therapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy followed a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. In the United States, by contrast, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are still routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed-not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment, such as tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin, are also administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. This long-term non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in the United States creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as the drugs kill only the susceptible bacteria, leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish. The newly-resistant bacteria can then spread from farm animals to other animals, including humans.

    Based on the information in the passage, the author would most likely agree with which of the following?

    A)Many industrial farms in the United States do not meet federal sanitation standards.
    B)If the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics were halted worldwide, there would be no new resistant strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
    C)European livestock and poultry do not host as many strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as do livestock and poultry in the United States.
    D)Bacteria that lack antibiotic resistance do not survive for long in most livestock.
    E)Bacteria are most likely to develop resistance to antibiotics as a result of actions taken by people.


    Please help me with eliminating choices and finding the best answer
    Thanks

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    sl750 Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Sat Aug 27, 2011 8:23 am
    In my opinion E

    killer1387 Legendary Member Default Avatar
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    Post Sun Aug 28, 2011 6:30 am
    E +1
    hint from passage: "In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria rarely develop resistance to antibiotics. "

    sunnyjohn Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts
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    Post Sun Aug 28, 2011 8:49 pm
    arashyazdiha wrote:
    Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, because bacteria adapt quickly to new environmental conditions, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Critically ill patients are more likely to require the aid of antibiotics to fight infections, so are more likely to be harmed by the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    Bacteria contain genetic material called plasmids, which can carry the genes enabling antibiotic resistance. Bacteria share these plasmids among one another via a direct, mechanical transfer between cells, and antibiotic-resistant plasmids can thus spread easily throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural chromosomal mutation may confer antibiotic resistance on a bacterium, which can then reproduce and become dominant via natural selection, likely when that colony is exposed to antibiotics. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
    On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for non-therapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy followed a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. In the United States, by contrast, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are still routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed-not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment, such as tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin, are also administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. This long-term non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in the United States creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as the drugs kill only the susceptible bacteria, leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish. The newly-resistant bacteria can then spread from farm animals to other animals, including humans.

    Based on the information in the passage, the author would most likely agree with which of the following?

    A)Many industrial farms in the United States do not meet federal sanitation standards.
    B)If the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics were halted worldwide, there would be no new resistant strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
    C)European livestock and poultry do not host as many strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as do livestock and poultry in the United States.
    D)Bacteria that lack antibiotic resistance do not survive for long in most livestock.
    E)Bacteria are most likely to develop resistance to antibiotics as a result of actions taken by people.


    Please help me with eliminating choices and finding the best answer
    Thanks
    This question is asking about Author's view. Author's view are often hidden in facts specially in scientific passages. I have highlighted the author's view in green. In the light of those view - you can easily follow the process of elimination and find the answer.

    IMO: E

    navami Legendary Member
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    Post Mon Aug 29, 2011 1:18 pm
    IMO E

    _________________
    This time no looking back!!!
    Navami

    artistocrat Master | Next Rank: 500 Posts Default Avatar
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    Post Thu Sep 01, 2011 8:54 pm
    arashyazdiha wrote:
    Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, because bacteria adapt quickly to new environmental conditions, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Critically ill patients are more likely to require the aid of antibiotics to fight infections, so are more likely to be harmed by the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
    Bacteria contain genetic material called plasmids, which can carry the genes enabling antibiotic resistance. Bacteria share these plasmids among one another via a direct, mechanical transfer between cells, and antibiotic-resistant plasmids can thus spread easily throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural chromosomal mutation may confer antibiotic resistance on a bacterium, which can then reproduce and become dominant via natural selection, likely when that colony is exposed to antibiotics. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
    On January 1, 2006, the European Union banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for non-therapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy followed a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important antibiotics on animals. In the United States, by contrast, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are still routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed-not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment, such as tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin, are also administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. This long-term non-therapeutic use of antibiotics in the United States creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, as the drugs kill only the susceptible bacteria, leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish. The newly-resistant bacteria can then spread from farm animals to other animals, including humans.

    Based on the information in the passage, the author would most likely agree with which of the following?

    A)Many industrial farms in the United States do not meet federal sanitation standards.
    B)If the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics were halted worldwide, there would be no new resistant strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
    C)European livestock and poultry do not host as many strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria as do livestock and poultry in the United States.
    D)Bacteria that lack antibiotic resistance do not survive for long in most livestock.
    E)Bacteria are most likely to develop resistance to antibiotics as a result of actions taken by people.


    Please help me with eliminating choices and finding the best answer
    Thanks
    A) Passage not about standards. ELIMINATE
    B) "There would be no": too extreme. ELIMINATE
    C) No comparison made between Europe and US. ELIMINATE
    D) No information provided. ELIMINATE
    E) The passage is about human application of antibiotics. KEEP

    sscsh472 Newbie | Next Rank: 10 Posts
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    Posted:
    3 messages
    Post Wed Jan 18, 2017 2:29 am
    I think its E

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